Immigrant Enclaves, Ethnic Enclaves
Is a term reinvigorated by two brilliant sociologists: Alejandro Portes and Kenneth L. Wilson.
The term/concept refers to the marvelous construction of minority businesses into a tight
community of buyers and sellers who replicate the center economy in microcosm so that
the multiplier effect to their dollars is greatly enhanced. The ethnic enclave commonly
includes residences and meeting places but is foremost a community of businesses. The
importance of the ethnic enclave notion is that the idea of middlemen minorities had
many weaknesses, and these weaknesses included overly narrow and negative views of the
immigrant role in bulk cities.
To use these terms, cite their work:
Wilson, Kenneth L. and Alejandro Portes. 1980. "Immigrant Enclaves: An Analysis of the
labor Market Experiences of Cubans in Miami." American Journal of Sociology
86 (September): 295-319.
And/or, especially when using ethnic enclave economics:
Wilson, Kenneth L. and W. Allen Martin. 1982. "Ethnic Enclaves: A comparison of the Cuban
and Black Economies in Miami." American Journal of Sociology
The term enclaves by itself was handled well by Mark Abrahamson in his book,
Urban Enclaves: Identity and Place in America.
1996. New York: St Martin's Press. To quote Abrahamson's introduction on page 1: "The
little worlds Park wrote about, when given the above clarifications, come very close
to constituting what we will refer to as enclaves. To use the term enclave
in this manner requires some broadening of its customary referents, though. In prior
writings it has most frequently been used to refer to ... ethnic minorities [working]
in economically self-contained ghettos such as Miami's Little Havana." Then with a
footnote, he cites Park's (1925) The City and Wilson and Martin (1982)
"... Economies in Miami."